Reference of Benzyl alcohol

1 post / 0 new
dorachen
dorachen's picture
Reference of Benzyl alcohol

Benzyl alcohol is an aromatic alcohol usually used in a concentration of 0.9% as a bacteriostatic preservative in multiple-dose vials of solutions or drugs for parenteral therapy. Bacteriostatic sodium chloride, USP, is frequently used in the management of critically ill patients to flush intravascular catheters after the addition of medications or the withdrawal of blood; and sterile bacteriostatic water for injection, USP, is used to dilute or reconstitute medications for intravenous use. In addition, medications, such as some formulations of sodium heparin, USP, that are frequently used for infants and other critically ill patients may be preserved with  Benzyl alcoholToxic effects of Benzyl alcohol , including respiratory failure, vasodilation, hypotension, convulsions, and paralysis have been known for years (3-5). However, little is known about the toxic effects or levels of benzyl alcohol in neonates, especially in sick premature infants. Animal toxicity studies (6) show an LD((50)) of approximately 33 ml/kg (300 mg/kg) in rats treated by rapid intravenous infusion with 0.9%Benzyl alcohol, although 40 ml/kg (360 mg/kg) by slow intravenous infusion was tolerated without mortality. Adult dogs were killed by doses of 88-113 ml/kg (830-1060 mg/kg) of 0.9% benzyl alcohol intravenously, but tolerated smaller infusions without signs of toxicity. The serum half-life of benzyl alcohol in adult dogs is estimated at 1.5 hours. On the basis of the animal studies, it has been estimated that rapid intravenous infusion of adult humans with as much as 30 ml of 0.9% benzyl alcohol (approximately 4.5 mg/kg) in saline should be safe (6).